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                          What is a dream for
      One theory is that we dream to release the deep, secret desires. We do not express these desires in real life because of the rules of polite society. Another theory is that dreams allow us to solve problems that we can't solve in real life. We go to sleep with a problem and wake up with the solution. This may be a way to use our dreams rather than a purpose of dreaming. If you believe that your dreams are important then analysing them may help you to focus on the problem and help you to find the solution.The modern image is that dreams are the brain's way of cleaning up the computer’s hard disk. Dreams organize the events of the day into folders and delete what is not needed. But we all know that very little of what we dream is concerned with what happened to us that day.


      Everyone knows that taxation is necessary in a modern state: Without it, it would not be possible to pay the soldiers and policemen who protect us;nor the workers in government offices who look after our health, our food, our water, and all the other things that we cannot do for ourselves;nor the ministers and members of parliament(國會) who govern the country for us. By means of taxation, we pay for things that we need just as much as we need somewhere to live and something to eat.
      But everyone knows that taxation is necessary, different people have different ideas about how taxation should be arranged. Should each person have to pay a certain amount of money to the government each year? Or should there be tax on things that people buy and sell? If the first kind of taxation is used, should everyone pay the same tax, whether he is rich or poor? If the second kind of tax is preferred, should everything be taxed equally?
      In most countries, a direct tax on persons, which is called income tax, exists. It is arranged in such a way that the poorest people pay nothing, and the percentage of tax grows greater as the taxpayer’s income grows. In England, for example, the tax on the richest people goes up as high as ninety-five percent!
      But countries with direct taxation nearly always have indirect taxation too. Many things imported into the country have to pay taxes or “duties”. Of course, it is the men and women who buy these imported things in the shops who really have to pay the duties, in the form of higher prices. In some countries, too, there is a tax on things sold in the shops. If the most necessary things are taxed, a lot of money is collected, but the poor people suffer most. If unnecessary things like jewels and fur coats are taxed, less money is got but the tax is fairer, as the rich pay it.
      Probably this last kind of indirect tax, together with a direct tax on incomes which is low for the poor and high for the rich, is the best arrangement.


    51. Facing the board of directors, he didn’t deny __________ breaking the agreement. 

      A. him       B. it       C. his       D. its
    52. Xinchun returned from aboard a different man. The italicized part functions as a (n) _______.
      A. appositive (同位語)     B. object     C. adverbial     D. complement.
    53. Which of the following is a compound word (復合詞)?
      A. Nonsmoker     B. Deadline     C. Meanness     D. Misfit
    54. Which of the following sentences contains subjunctive mood?
      A. Lucy insisted that her son get home before 5 o'clock?
      B. She used to drive to work, but now she takes the city metro.
      C. Walk straight ahead, and don't turn till the second traffic lights.
      D. Paul will cancel his flight if he cannot get his visa by Friday.
    55. The following determiners(限定詞) can be used with both plural and uncountable nouns EXCEPT
      A. more   B. enough   C. many   D. such
    56. Which of the italicized parts indicates CONTRAST?
      A. She opened the door and quietly went in.
      B. Victoria likes music and Sam is fond of sports.
      C. Think it over again and you'll get an answer.
      D. He is somewhat arrogant, and I don't like this.
    57. Which of the following CANNOT be used as a nominal substitute(名詞替代詞)?
      A. Much      B. Neither      C. One      D. Quarter
    58. All the following sentences definitely indicate future time EXCEPT
      A. Mother is to have tea with Aunt Betty at four.
      B. The President is coming to the UN next week,
      C. The school pupils will be home by now.
      D. He is going to email me the necessary information.
    59. Which of the following sentences is grammatically INCORRECT?
      A. Politics are the art or science of government.
      B. Ten miles seems like a long walk to me.
      C. Mumps is a kind of infectious disease.
      D. All the furniture has arrived undamaged.
    60. Which of in the following phrases indicates a subject-predicate relationship?
      A. The arrival of the tourists       B. The law of Newton
      C. The occupation of the island      D. The plays of Oscar Wilde
    61. Which of the following italicized parts serves as an appositive?
      A. He is not the man to draw back.      B. Tony hit back the urge to tell a lie.
      C. Larry has a large family to support.     D. There is really nothing to fear.
    62. Which of the following is NOT an imperative sentence?
      A. Let me drive you home, shall I?      B. You will mind your own business.
      C. Come and have dinner with us.      D. I wish you could stay behind.
    63. If it _______ tomorrow, the match would be put off.
      A. were to rain      B. was to rain      C. was raining      D. had rained
    64. Which of the following sentences expresses a fact?
      A. Mary and her son must be home by now.      B. Careless reading must give poor results.
      C. It’s getting late, and I must leave now.       D. He must be working late at the office.
    65. The following are all dynamic verbs(動態動詞) EXCEPT
      A. remain       B. turn       C. write       D. knock

    51. 解析:本題考查動名詞的邏輯主語。動名詞可以有自己的邏輯(意義)主語,一般可以用名詞所有格Tom’s,代詞賓格如him(口語),書面語情況下一般用物主代詞his,their。本題選C,但我還是要吐槽,因為根本就不需要多此一舉添加his, he didn't deny breaking the agreement完全正確,比原題要精簡地道許多,從寫作角度來看,his根本是多余的,當然純粹考察語法的話選C。

    52. 解析:此題恐怕是最受爭議的題目了,有人認為選A,有人認為選D。根據English Grammar: A University Course一書,“The Subject Complement (主語補足語) is the obligatory constituent which follows a copular verb(系動詞) and which cannot be made subject in a passive clause: 比如Who’s there? It’s me/It’s I. She became a tennis champion at a very early age. Feel free to ask questions!” 一般語法書也是這么說的,有的書上把這種情況下接的名詞叫做predicate noun/nominative,接的形容詞叫做predicate adjective。該書接著說“As well as be and seem, a wide range of verbs can be used to link the subject to its Complement; these add meanings of transition (become, get, go, grow, turn) and of perception (sound, smell, look) among others,” 比如I know it sounds stupid. The situation becomes even worse. 這些一般語法書也會提到,但是題目里的都不是這種現象,很多語法書對主語補語的介紹也就到此為止。好在這本書多介紹了一點,但情況很微妙。此書又說 More problematic is the constituent following other verbs that could be used intransitively with the same meaning, as in:
    Saint Ethelbert was born a Saxon princess. (she was born)
    He returned a broken man. (he returned)
    He died young. (he died)
    We shall consider such constituents as Complements on the strength of the possible paraphrase containing be (When he returned he was a broken man; When he died he was young).

    53. 解析:首先要知道什么是復合詞。A compound is a word that consists of more than one free morpheme。所謂morpheme詞素是最小的音義結合體,其最大的特點是不能再被分割為更小的音義結合體。而free morpheme是指能獨立存在使用的詞素,bound morpheme則是必須依附于其他單位的詞素,比如前綴后綴屬于bound morpheme,如pre-,-ment,在單詞shipment里,ship就是free morpheme,ment則是bound。因此四個選項里只有deadline是由兩個free morpheme構成(dead+line),其他三個都有Bound morpheme比如non,ness,mis-等。

    54. 解析: subjunctive mood是指虛擬語氣,四個選項里只有A的insist屬于虛擬語氣用法,其中that從句里省略了should。

    55. 解析:限定詞的用法是近幾年專四的熱門考點,諸如some,many,both,all,each等用法究竟如何還是希望大家多翻閱語法書和詞典。這道題看似有點難度,也許你從來不知道哪個限定詞可以接名詞復數和不可數名詞,但好在備選項里每個單詞你都可以去接名詞試試就知道了,比如more money,more trees; enough money, enough trees; many money?, many trees; such big trees, such behavior.所以選C。

    56. 解析:首先要明白and不一定表示并列。A,C里的and表示先后;D里的and表示遞進;只有B里的and表示對比。

    57. 解析:估計不少學生看到名詞替代詞這個術語,一開始都嚇著了,因為壓根沒聽說過,不過對做這道題目倒無大礙,所謂名詞替代詞顧名思義就是指能代替名詞或名詞短語,避免重復的詞,英語里one, ones,(the)same等都是常見的。比如There are good films as well as bad ones.除此以外還有the kind, the sort,比如Slang disappears quickly, especially the juvenile sort.還有一些不定代詞等比如all, both, some, any enough, several, none, many, much, (a) few, (a) little, the other, others, another, either, neither等,比如Can you get me some nails? I need some. I don’t want any more food. I’ve had enough. 本題選D, quarter不是名詞替代詞。

    58. 解析:這道題目有點意思,既考查時態,又考查will的用法,A/B/D都是將來時的各種表達,唯獨C的will,看似是將來時標志,其實不然,因為和by now矛盾,這里will的用法是指you think something is true,表說話人自己的看法,比如That will be Tim coming home now; Ask anyone and they will tell you the same thing. 本題選C。

    59. 解析:本題考查主謂一致(agreement/concord)。ten miles看作整體單數,mumps腮腺炎這個單詞就是以s結尾的,不可數名詞;furniture在英語里是不可數名詞;A里的politics并不是指政治,而是指政治學(political science),是不可數名詞,但這個用法主要是英式英語。此外,politics表示政治可以看作不可數名詞,也可以看作復數,比如Politics have always interested me. 本題選A。

    60. 解析:章振邦的書拿到手后果然發現了他的講解,基本就是原句。第五版的55頁,名詞屬格和of-詞組一節說:名詞屬格和of-詞組在意義和用法上有許多相同之處,比如the trunk of an elephant=an elephant's trunk,表示主謂關系有the arrival of the prime minister;表示動賓關系 the occupation of the Island;表來源 the law of Newton。因此據此本題選A。但我要吐槽的是先不說我手上其他參考書根本沒有講到,就這種主謂關系,動賓關系的說法我就不太同意,因為所謂詞組的主謂關系和動賓關系是漢語語法里的說法,英語里說主謂自然指的是句子,一個名詞短語何來主謂之說?

    61. 解析:又是同位語?!四個選項的用法在大部分語法書里并沒有做進一步區分,都成為不定式的定語用法,修飾名詞。不過章振邦的書里又出現了這個,又是原句作為選項出現,章指出不定式作為名詞的后置修飾語時,不定式和名詞之間的搭配關系是主謂A中的the man draw back,也可以是C和D的動賓to fear nothing, to support family;有時候也是同為關系,比如urge(沖動)的內容就是指to tell a lie撒謊,故為同位語。我不得不吐槽,章很喜歡分析任何語法單位的結構,他在教師用書的第一部分也說本書語法體系是要貫徹層次分析法。

    62. 解析:花了點時間翻遍手頭各類語法和用法圖書,除了直接用動詞打頭,Do/Don't,You/其他喚名+動詞, let類型外,均沒有見到D的wish類型。說明:似乎只有章振邦的書上在情態動詞will一節提到B的屬于加強祈使句。我個人對此表示質疑。更常見的應該是You mind your own business。如果說You will mind your own business是祈使句,那么You will see him now豈不是也是祈使句?這顯然說不通。其實You will mind your own business要有祈使句功能,還跟語氣語調有很大關系,應該念成You WILL mind your own business! 而不是YOU will mind your own business. 出題人不嚴謹,死扣語法書,可見一斑。
    63. 解析:最經典的If條件虛擬句,說的是將來,應該選A.

    64. 解析:目前來看又要有爭議。很多人認為是B,而我之前說C,盡管C里的must是表示主觀必須(C只有前半句是fact,后半句談不上什么事實)。問題在于如何理解B的must。在English Grammar:A University Course一書里有一節談到must的logical necessity用法問題,作者說在英式英語里有用must表示邏輯上的必定如此,盡管美國人更喜歡用have to。比如 If Jane is Pat's sister and Jill is Jane's daughter, Pat must be Jill's aunt.此時Pat must be Jill's aunt就相當于不用情態動詞的陳述句Pat is Jill's aunt.如此極端的例子才能說明這是邏輯上的必然,但我實在看不出選項B里一個沒有語境的句子是如何有邏輯上的必然,我個人覺得Careless reading must give poor results.和Careless reading gives poor results.還是不一樣的。B句是章振邦那本書里的原句,章自己也說“用must表示必然,也是一種推測或推斷,其口氣最為肯定,一般用于肯定陳述句”由此來看,再如何肯定那也是一種推斷,不是fact。

    65. 解析:看到專四考這個題目,我只能呵呵。動態動詞是指能夠延續持續動作的,比如hit,run等,相反的則是stative verb靜態動詞,比如know.現在進行時是常見檢驗手段。你不能說I am knowing the answer,只能說I know the answer,因此know是靜態動詞。同理,題目的A選項remain也是靜態動詞,其他都是動態動詞。


    66. __________ to school life was less difficult than the pupil had expected.
      A. Adhering                         B. Adopting                         C. Adjusting                         D. Acquainting
    67. He is fed up with the same old dreary routine, and wants to quit his job. The underlined part means __________.
      A. dull                                 B. boring                         C. long                                 D. hard
    68. At last night’s party Larry said something that I though was beyond me. The underlined part means __________.
      A. I was unable to do                                                 B. I couldn’t understand
      C. I was unable to stop                                                 D. I couldn’t tolerate
    69. The couple __________their old house and sold it for a vast profit.
      A. did for                         B. did in                                 C. did with                         D. did up
    70. Sally contributed a lot to the project, but she never once accepted all the __________ for herself.
      A. credit                                 B. attention                         C. focus                                 D. award
    71. The child nodded, apparently content with his mother’s promise. The underlined part means __________.
      A. as far as one has learnt                                         B. as far as one is concerned
      C. as far as one can see                                                 D. as far as one is told
    72. The __________ that sport builds character is well accepted by people nowadays.
      A. issue                            B. argument                         C. point                                 D. sentence
    73. Everyone in the office knows that Melinda takes infinite care over her work. The underlined part means __________.
      A. limited                         B. unnecessary                  C. overdue                         D. much
    74. The new measure will reduce the chance of serious injury in the event of an accident. The underlined part means __________.
      A. if an accident happens                                         B. if an accident can be prevented
      C. before an accident                                                 D. during an accident
    75. Traditionally, local midwives would __________ all the babies in the area.
      A. handle                         B. produce                         C. deliver                         D. help
    76. No food or drink is allowed on the premises. The underlined part means __________.
      A. proposition                 B. advertisement                 C. building                         D. string
    77. The court would not accept his appeal unless __________ evidence is provided.
      A. conclusive                  B. definite                         C. eventual                         D. concluding
    78. As soon as he opened the door, a __________ of cold air swept through the house.
      A. flow                           B. movement                         C. rush                                 D. blast
    79. She really wanted to say something at the meeting, but eventually __________ from it.
      A. prevented                   B. refrained                         C. limited                         D. restricted
    80. The couple told the decorator that they wanted their bedroom gaily painted. The underlined part means __________.
      A. brightly                      B. light-heartedly                 C. cheerfully                         D. lightly

    66. 解析:這題沒啥好說的,適應學校生活 adjust to school life,選C。
    67. 解析: dreary指dull,選A。但有詞典指出boring也是近義詞,外教也表示AB均可。所以B也是對的,我估計出題人是選A。
    68. 解析:be beyond somebody指to be too difficult for someone to understand.故選B。
    69. 解析:選D。do up這里指to repair an old building or car, or to improve its appearance。此外do up還可以指fasten something,比如Do your laces up before you trip over.
    70. 解析:選A。這里的credit指approval or praise that you give to someone for something they have done.常見搭配有give credit; take/claim/deserve credit。
    71. 解析:首先ABCD的釋義都是指apparently的意思,具體語境有具體不同的釋義,在我們這個句子里,指according to the way someone looks or a situation appears, although you cannot be sure. 因此選C。換一個句子比如I wasn’t there, but apparently the thief got away.這里的apparently就指A或D。
    72. 解析:選B。這里的argument指a set of reasons that show something is true or untrue, right or wrong。相當于漢語說的主張論點。很多人選C,point的確有這個意思,也可以接同位語從句,搭配上習慣是說take the/sb’s point.不過,我詢問過外教,他是覺得argument更好,只是point也沒什么不對。
    73. 解析:infinite是finite的反義詞,這里指very great/huge in amount or degree,因此選D。
    74. 解析: 選A。in the event of something is used to tell people what they should do if something happens.
    75. 解析:midwife是指產婆,接生員。所以選C,deliver可以指接生(孩子),或者生孩子。
    76. 解析:選C。以復數形式出現的premises指the buildings and land that a shop, restaurant, company etc uses.
    77. 解析:選A。首先appeal是指上訴。Conclusive指showing something is definitely true,比如conclusive proof/evidence/findings。旁證是circumstantial evidence.
    78. 解析:個人認為選D。又見量化問題,一陣/股冷風襲來該如何用英語說。首先句子里動詞用了sweep,指to move suddenly and/or with force over an area or in a particular direction.而blast指a sudden strong movement of air。但問題在于C。詞典里rush其實可以指a sudden fast movement of air, 外教的回答是blast is better here and is what native speakers would prefer. 而Flow往往接的是水流電流等,而且指a smooth and steady movement.
    79. 解析:refrain from sth/doing sth指to not do something you want to do,主要用于書面語。
    80. 解析:先聊聊gaily這個單詞的來源吧。這個單詞雖然是ly結尾卻是形容詞,是有gay + ly 變來的。而gay在很早的時候是指人happy, merry, cheerful,或者顏色bright, attractive,這個用法現代英語已經拋棄,請大家不要亂用。所謂gaily painted/colored/decorated指having bright cheerful colors.所以選A。



      Most of us, as students, are careful with our money in daily life: we collect all kinds of coupons(優惠券); we look for group-buy deals if we eat out or travel; we don't buy clothes unless in a sale. However, some people think that all this may not make us smart consumers. What is your opinion?

    Write on ANSWER SHEET THREE a composition of about 200 words.

      You are to write in three parts.
      In the first part, state specifically what your view is.
      In the second part, provide one or two reasons or your experience(s) to support your opinion.

      In the last part, bring what you have written to a natural conclusion or a summary.

      You should supply an appropriate tittle for your composition.

      Marks will be awarded for content, organization, grammar and appropriateness. Failure to follow the instructions may result in a loss of marks.


      Write on ANSWER SHEET THREE a note of about 50—60 words based on the following situation:

      Your former high-school classmate(Mathew or Grace) is coming to visit you in the dorm. But, you have got something urgent to do and thus cannot wait for him/her there. Leave a note on the door, expressing your apology and telling him/her how to find you. You must make clear where you are in the note.

      Marks will be awarded for content, organization, grammar and appropriateness.


                 The advantages of being careful with money in daily life
      Nowadays, there is a hot debate on whether people, including students should be careful with their money in their daily life since they try their best to save money. Some people think it is not good to do so because this may not make people smart consumers. But in my eyes, the advantages of being careful with money in daily life outweigh the disadvantages. 
      First, being careful with money is a virtue that can always benefit people. Being thrifty is of great help, especially when the economic status around the world is not very good and it becomes harder to earn money than before. A good habit of being careful with money will help many people go through this difficult period or any other difficult financial situation in their life. People with this awareness will think carefully before deciding to buy anything. For sudents, this awareness is also of great help since they mainly depend on their parents for financial supports. When they keep this awareness in their mind, they will definitely avoid wasting money.
      Secondly, being careful with money is, in fact, a good way of practicsing how to manage one's money. In current society, it is necessary to learn somthing about finance. But theories are usually hard to learn. In contrast, most people can learn quickly by practising. Being careful with money means an efficient use of money, which, in essence, equals to part of the job of a financial planner. Being careful with money can teach people to make best